Andrew Carnegie’s decision to back up library construction developed out from his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years from the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed out of the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but needed to stop after only 36 months. The rapid industrialization for the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father beyond business. Thus, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.Categories: Uncategorized
Andrew Carnegie’s decision to back up library construction developed out from his personal experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years from the coastal town of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed out of the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.essaycapitals.com Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but needed to stop after only 36 months. The rapid industrialization for the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father beyond business. Thus, the household sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie pay a visit to work, his learning did not end. Following a year at a textile factory, he became a messenger boy for any local telegraph company. Most of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to the young worker who wished to borrow a manuscript. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows where the sunlight of information streamed. In 1853, if the colonel’s representatives aimed to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter to editor from the Pittsburgh Dispatch defending an appropriate of working boys to have enjoyment from the pleasures on the library. More vital, he resolved that, should he ever be wealthy, he makes similar opportunities designed to other poor workers.
Through the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune that are going to enable him to meet that pledge. During his years to be a messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the ability of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts together with the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he went to work on age 18. During his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent belonging to the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in various other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to handle the Keystone Bridge Company, that had been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. Through 1870s he was centering on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.
Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Just before selling Carnegie Steel he had started to consider how to handle his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, by which he stated that wealthy men should do without extravagance, provide moderately with regard to dependents, and distribute the rest of their riches to help the welfare and happiness within the common man–when using the consideration to help just those who would help themselves. The Best Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields in which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to add gifts that promoted scientific research, the typical spread of information, and the promotion of world peace. Many of those organizations consistently this very day: the Carnegie Corporation in Nyc, for example, helps support Sesame Street.
Owing to his background, Carnegie was particularly focused on public libraries. At some time he stated a library was the absolute best gift for just a community, because it gave people the ability to improve themselves. His confidence was based on the outcomes of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, as an example ,, a library given by Enoch Pratt was utilized by 37,000 people 12 months. Carnegie believed that the relatively few public library patrons were of more value with their community rrn comparison to the masses who chose to not gain benefit from the library.
Carnegie divided his donations to libraries on the retail and wholesale periods. Through the entire retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in america. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities for example swimming pools and libraries. From the years after 1896, termed as a wholesale period, Carnegie will no longer supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities which had limited a chance to access cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were cheaper than $10,000. Although the vast majority of towns receiving gifts were within the Midwest, altogether 46 states taken advantage of Carnegie’s plan.
Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction carrying out a report produced to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 in the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report determined that to get really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings ended up being provided, the good news is it was time to staff these people with experts who would stimulate active, efficient libraries within their communities. Libraries already promised continued being built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was turned to library education.
When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes where by he believed. His gifts to several charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 percent of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as an approach to increase people’s lives, and libraries provided an example of his main tools that may help Americans develop a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both as he was young, and down the road? 2. What amount formal education did Carnegie have? What factors contributed to his involvement in books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people ought to do with their money? Why did he imagine that? Would you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past and his awesome beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, On your Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).